Probiotics and Pregnancy

Posted On: October 23, 2019
Categories:Probiotics and Your Health,


They are not only safe but critical to baby’s immune system

By Ross Pelton, RPh, PhD, CCN
Scientific Director, Essential Formulas

Did you know that a mother’s microbiome plays a critical role in the formation and development of her baby’s microbiome and immune system? Because of this, many women want to know if probiotics are safe to take during pregnancy and lactation.

When probiotics are ingested orally or used vaginally, they are considered safe and well-tolerated. The primary question regarding taking probiotics during pregnancy is whether it might cause a health complication during pregnancy or to the infant after birth.

One concern regarding women taking probiotics during pregnancy is the potential for the ingested bacteria to cause systemic infections. Although rare, probiotic-related infections have been reported. However, the risk of developing an infection from ingested Lactobacillus probiotics is estimated to be less than 1 per million users, and there are zero reports of infections associated with the use of bifidobacteria.i

A meta-analysis of 8 randomized control trials of probiotic use in more than 1500 pregnant women was published.ii Most of the women began taking the probiotics during the third trimester and continued until delivery. The studies included in the meta-analysis compared products containing Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium with a placebo. There was no increase in the incidence of miscarriages, and there were no significant differences in birth weight, gestational age, or the frequency of cesarean section deliveries.

Two studies examining the use of lactobacillus-containing probiotics in the first trimester of pregnancy reported no adverse health issues.iii,iv Two other trials in which women who took probiotics continually starting in the first trimester until the end of breastfeeding reported no health problems to the mothers or their infants.v,vi

Probiotics During Breastfeeding: Several studies report that taking probiotics during breastfeeding can confer health benefits to the infant. For example, the administration of probiotics during breastfeeding has been shown to improve an infant’s immune system.vii Probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breastfeeding has also been shown to reduce the incidence of childhood eczema.viii,ix

Cesarean Births: Infants born via cesarean section delivery do not get exposed to the mother’s vaginal microbiome, which compromises the infant’s immune system.x Studies show that fewer infants delivered via C-section develop allergic diseases such as eczema and asthma when the mother took probiotics during the last month of pregnancy, and probiotics were administered to the infant from birth until the age of 6 months.xi

Dr. Ohhira’s Probiotics® contain a combination of probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotic metabolites. As Scientific Director, I have suggested the following protocol for women who have had a C-section delivery. I instruct the women to bite or puncture a single capsule of Dr. Ohhira’s Probiotics and squeeze the contents onto her fingertip then swish the finger around the inside of the infant’s mouth. This enables the probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotic metabolites in Dr. Ohhira’s to enter the infant’s digestive tract and help them develop a healthy microbiome.

Conclusion: Taking probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been shown to cause any health or safety concerns for pregnant or lactating women or to their infants. Also, probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breastfeeding has been shown to improve the microbiome and confer health benefits to both the mother and her newborn child.

i Borriello SP, et al. Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(6):775-80.
ii Dugoua JJ, et al. Probiotic Safety in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces spp. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2009;31(6):542-52.
iii Jick H, et al. First-trimester drug use and congenital disorders. JAMA 1981;246(4):343-6.
iv Aselton P, et al. First-trimester drug use and congenital disorders. Obstet Gynecol 1985;65(4):451-5.
v Boyle RJ, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus GG treatment during pregnancy on the development of fetal antigen-specific immune responses. Clin Exp Allergy 2008;38(12):1882-90.
vi Luoto R, et al. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr 2010;103(12):1792-9.
vii Rinne M, et al. Effect of probiotics and breastfeeding on the bifidobacterium and lactobacillus/enterococcus microbiota and humoral immune responses. J Pediatr. 2005 Aug;147(2):186-91.
viii Murphy R, et al. Eczema-protective probiotic alters infant gut microbiome functional capacity but not composition: sub-sample analysis from a RCT. Benef Microbes. 2019 Feb 8;10(1):5-17.
ix Rautava S, et al. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breastfeeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J all Clin Immun. 2012 Dec;130(6):1355-1360.
x Cho, CE, et al. Cesarean section and development of the immune system in the offspring. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2013 Apr;208(4):249-254
xi Kuitunen M, et al. Probiotics prevent IgE-associated allergy until age five years in cesarean-delivered children but not in the total cohort. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2009 Feb;123(2):335-341.